Implicit Filtering (ImFil) is an algorithm designed for problems with local minima caused by high-frequency, low-amplitude noise and with an underlying large scale structure that is easily optimized. ImFil uses difference gradients during the search and can be considered as an extension of coordinate search. In ImFil, the optimization is controlled by evaluating the objective function at a cluster (or stencil) of points within the given bounds. The minimum of those evaluations then drives the next cluster of points, using first-order interpolation to estimate the derivative, and aided by user-provided exploration directions, if any. Convergence is reached if the “budget” for objective function evaluations is spent, if the smallest cluster size has been reached, or if incremental improvement drops below a preset threshold.

The initial clusters of points are almost completely determined by the problem boundaries, making ImFil relatively insensitive to the initial solution and allows it to easily escape from local minima. Conversely, this means that if the initial point is known to be of high quality, ImFil must be provided with tight bounds around this point, or it will unnecessarily evaluate points in regions that do not contain the global minimum.

As a practical matter, for the noisy objective functions we studied, we find that the total number of evaluations is driven almost completely by the requested step sizes between successive clusters, rather than finding convergence explicitly.

We have rewritten the original ImFil MATLAB implementation in Python

Reference: C.T. Kelley, “Implicit Filtering”, 2011, ISBN: 978-1-61197-189-7

Original software available at